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The Department of Neurosurgery was founded in 1945 on the basis of the Neurosurgical Clinic of Kyiv Psycho-Neurological Institute, which was reorganized into Kyiv Institute of Neurosurgery of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine.

In 1945-1960 the head of the department was Full Professor О. I. Arutiunov.

Academician of the NAMS of the USSR, Full Professor Arutiunov  О. І. was  the founder of the neurosurgical service in Ukraine; Director of the Kyiv Institute of Neurosurgery (1945-1963), Director of the Institute of Neurosurgery named after М. N. Burdenko (1963-1978). He was the first one to establish the School of Neurosurgery in Ukraine.

In 1954-1955 the head of the department (part-time) was Full Professor A. P. Romodanov.

Academician of the NAMS of the USSR, Full Professor A. P. Romodanov wasthe Director of Kyiv Institute of Neurosurgery (1963-1993).

In 1960-1993 the department was headed by Full Professor G. P. Pedachenko.

Full Professor G. P. Pedachenko, MD, PhD (1954), Senior Staff Scientist (1959), Associate Professor (1959), MD, Dr. Sc. (1965), Full Professor (1966). In 1959-1988 he was the head of Department of Vascular Pathology and Brain Injury of the Kyiv Institute of Neurosurgery. There were defended 3 Doctoral and 32 PhD theses under his guidance.

Author of about 500 scientific publications, including 9 monographs, 6 textbooks, 30 inventions 82 rationalization proposals.

Since July, 1993 the department has been headed by Full Professor, Corresponding Member of the NAMS of Ukraine M. Ye. Polishchuk.

Full Professor M. Ye. Polishchuk is a leading expert in the development of surgical treatment of acute disturbed cerebral circulation, cerebral injury in patients of different age, somatic pathology on the background of alcohol intoxication, issues of the combined brain injury, vertebral spinal trauma, organization of the emergency neurosurgical aid, expert in the development of standards and algorithms in neurosurgery, postgraduate training for neurosurgeons, the development of  legislative acts in health care, science, education, Chief Neurosurgeon of the Health Administration of Kyiv (1985-1995), Director of the Clinics of Neurosurgery of Emergency Hospital, Research Manager of the Clinic of Spinal Pathology of the Institute of Neurosurgery.

Author of about 350 scientific works, 13 monographs, 22 inventions, 63 rationalization proposals. Scientific supervisor of 38 PhD and 3 Doctoral theses. 

Since 2002 has been the deputy of the Verkhovna Rada, head of the Committee on Healthcare, Maternity and Child Care.

V. A. Shulika-Karachansky, O. A. Krister, Ya. I. Fainzil’ber, O. L. Dukhin, O. P. Burlutsky, P. H. Tananaiko, I. D. Virozub, Yu. D. Sosnov, V. H. Karavanov, I. S. Hlushkova, R. L. Andriiko, Ya. V. Patsko, S. A. Romodanov, V. V. Khoziainov, O. Ye. Dunaievsky, M. I. Oryshaka worked at the department at different times.