The foundation of the Department of Neonatology in 1977, (it was the first one in Ukraine and the second one in the Soviet Union after the Department of Neonatology of the Order of Lenin Central Institute for Advanced Medical Training) was caused by the development of medical aid for infants in all developed countries of the world, the necessity of the development and implementation of the innovatory methods of medical aid for infants and doctors’ advanced training in physiology, pathology, intensive care for newborns, and the management of premature infants.

In 1977-1996 the department was headed by the founder of neonatology in Ukraine, MD, Dr. Sc.,Chief Neonatologist of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine in 1977-1992, Honoured Doctor of Ukraine, Full Professor S. P. Katonina.Since 1996 the department has been headed by MD, Dr. Sc.,Full Professor Ye. Ye. Shun’ko. Full Professor O. G. Sulima, who worked at the department about 30 years and was Chief Neonatologist of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine in 1992-2004, greatly contributed in the development of neonatology in Ukraine and the work of the Department of Neonatology.

The staff members read lectures, hold workshops and practicals in physiology and pathology in infants,   the innovatory methods of intensive care for newborns, the management of premature infants, assistance of breast feeding, the practice of the Kangaroo Mother Care Programme,  neonatal primary resuscitation and post-resuscitation care, there postgraduate neonatologists, internship neonatologists, obstetricians and gynaecologists, paediatricians,  doctors of general practice – family medicine are trained in the mentioned up-to-date technologies.